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Concert Program Cover

First Concert of the 80th Season

The Universe at an Exhibition

Monday, October 29th, 2018
Cordier Auditorium
Scott Humphries, Conductor

  Star Trek: First Contact - End Credits Jerry Goldsmith  
  The Inner Light Jay Chattaway  
  Star Trek: Into Darkness Michael Giacchino  
  Pictures at an Exhibition Modeste Mussorgsky  

I. The Gnome
Promenade (2nd)
II. The Old Castle
Promenade (3rd)
III. Tuileries
IV. Cattle
Promenade (4th)
V. Ballet of Unhatched Chicks
VI. Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle
Promenade (5th)
VII. Limoges. The Market
VIII. Catacombs (Roman Tomb)
IX. The Hut on Hen's Legs (Baba Yaga)
X. The Great Gate of Kiev


The Adams Program Notes by James R. C. Adams


Today's music is, with the exception of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, music from films. I've had people ask why we commonly distinguish between film music and music for the concert hall. After all, isn't music just music? Actually, no. There is a difference, just as there is a difference between ballet music and opera.

Film music is part of a duo -- the music and the film -- just as ballet is a duo -- the music and the dance. Is it possible to enjoy the music in both cases without the accompanying film or dance? Of course, but the experience is not complete, and it is difficult to judge its quality without having its counterpart for comparison. The closest thing to "film music" in the classical world is "program music," in which the music is supposed to suggest events occuring. Examples would be Vivaldi's The Four Seasons or Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf. Program music, like film music, is looked down upon by many critics. "Serious" listeners prefer "absolute music," such as a Brahms symphony or a Bach fugue.

Film music was originally completely unrelated to the content of a film; it was there to mask the noise of the projetor and the audience. Random pieces of well-known popular tunes and, later, European symphonic pieces were used throughout the length of the film with no effort to relate them to either the mood or the action.

That, of course, changed, and film producers eventually saw the need to relate the music to the action. In fact, it was largely the result of individual pianists or organists who improvised while following the action on-screen that led the producers to start hiring people to composer music for specific films. The first time that was done was in 1908 for the French film L'Assassinat du Duc de Guise, by the well-regarded Camimlle Saint-Saens.

Critical attitudes vary with time, of course. It was a truism for years that film music should not be "memorable," because it would upstage the drama. Sort of the way Bizet's music ruined Carmen!

Perhaps the first composer to become famous for his film music, and who helped his colleagues to gain a measure of credit for the work, was Max Steiner. He is "credited" with developing what is known as "Mickeymousing," that is, making the music punctuate every single action in the film. It can be heard in the first King Kong. When the ape is climbing the Empire State Building, you can "hear" each step as Kong climbs. Steiner is known the world over as the consummate film composer, but critics such as Irwin Bazelon rant about his schmaltz, despite his many awards, including an Oscar. Other composers of that period, Erich Korngold, Dmitri Tiomkin, and Miklos Rozsa, for example, were equally vilified. In fact, the popularity of music from such films as High Noon and Doctor Zhivago Bazelon attributes to the ignorance and poor taste of the public. He means Us.

After the Golden Age of film music in the nineteen-thirties and forties, written mostly by European concert composers fleeing the Nazis, the film composers fell on hard times. Film ceased to be an art and became a commodity. Control over the music was taken by producers who knew little about film-making, and even less about music. One director insisted that for a movie set in France, French horns should be used. He refused to accept the composer's assurance that French horns were not French. The composer gave in, but in a different film, set in England, he featured the English horn during the credits. The director missed the irony.

  Star Trek: First Contact - End Credits Jerry Goldsmith

Of the three composers of Star Trek scores featured in this concert, Jerry Goldsmith is the best known and also the most prolific. In his long career, he wrote the music for five Star Trek films, as well as scores for The Sand Pebbles, Logan's Run, Planet of the Apes, Patton, Papillon, Chinatown, The Wind and the Lion, The Omen, The Boys from Brazil, Capricorn One, Alien, Outland, Poltergeist, The Secret of NIMH, Gremlins, Hoosiers, Total Recall, Basic Instinct, Rudy, Air Force One, L.A. Confidential, Mulan, The Mummy, and three Rambo films. I suspect you have all seen at least one of these films.

Throughout his career, Goldsmith was nominated eighteen times for an Academy Award. Unfortunately, he won only once for his score to the 1976 film The Omen.

Jerry Goldsmith had no objection to collaborating with others. On the work we are to hear today, Mr. Goldsmith's oldest son collaborated with him for twenty-two minutes of the score.

  The Inner Light Jay Chattaway
(b. 1946)

Star Trek has had a long life as a film franchise, as well as a TV franchise. This concert includes music from several of the Star Trek films, but this one is from the TV series, for which Jay Chattaway wrote the music for several episodes, including The Next Generation (42 episodes), Deep Space Nine (59 episodes), Voyager (54 episodes), and Enterprise (28 episodes). The penny-whistle music he wrote for The Inner Light episode in 1992 was so popular that Chattaway orchestrated it for concert performance.

The work was written for an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation and has become Chattaway's most popular composition. He wrote it in ten minutes, but had to write other pieces from which the film's director could choose. It took hours to write the alternative pieces, and Chattaway was pleased that his first example was the one to be chosen for the episode.

Chattaway was born in Monongahela, Pennsylvania, and studied at West Virginia University, where he earned a B.A. and an M.A. in music.

In 2001, he won an Emmy for Outstanding Music for a Series for the final episode of Star Trek: Voyager.

  Star Trek: Into Darkness Michael Giacchino

Star Trek has had an amazing run, first as a television series, and finally as a film series. There have been at least thirteen Star Trek films made, with more on the way. The first film was called Star Trek: The Movie, to distinguish it from the earlier TV series. A number of composers were used for those films, Jerry Goldsmith for as many as five of them. Giacchino wrote scores for three of them, plus one for a recent film in the Star Wars franchise, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story.

Giacchino developed an interest in both music and cinema at the age of ten in his native New Jersey. In his basement he created short stop-action films, but found that the thing he enjoyed most was creating the music to accompany them. Later, he went to the School of Visual Arts in New York, and then to Juilliard School at Lincoln Center.

His first job with the Disney organization was writing copy for publicity. Eventually, he became involved with their video game productions. He studied music at night. His first major work was for a video game, The Lost World for the Sony PlayStation. In fact, that was the first video game to have an orchestral score written especially for it. Giacchino (pronounced "ja-KEE-noh") might be considered the Father of Video Game Music.

The director J.J. Abrams liked the music that Giacchino had written for the series of Medal of Honor games, and hired him to write for a new TV series just beginning: Alias. It lasted for five seasons. His next success was for the long-running, and very popular series, Lost. In the six years that he worked on Lost, he continued to write music for video games, and got his first chance to write for film with Pixar's The Incredibles.

By this time, J.J. Abrams was making feature films, and his experience with Giacchino's music for the television series led him to hire Giacchino for Mission: Impossible III. He won an Oscar nomination for his work on Ratatouille. He has been working for J.J. Abrams ever since, and Abrams has nothing but praise for Giacchino.

  Pictures at an Exhibition Modeste Mussorgsky

Mussorgsky was a member of the great "Russian Five," together with Balakirev, Cui, Borodin, and Rimsky Korsakov, and, as such, was a nationalist. Like them, he was strongly attracted to Russian folklore; folk songs influenced his music and folk tales served as the literary basis for much of his work.

There seem to be three attitudes to Mussorgsky. Some think he was merely a gifted amateur and put some of the peculiarities of his music down to ignorance of established procedures. Others think he did everything deliberately, but was so far ahead of his time that he was simply not understood. Still others believe that he should be admired for his originality, but his musical illiteracy must be recognized. Perhaps there is a fourth point of view: he might have been a great composer if he hadn't been an alcoholic. Tolstoy remarked that he "...liked neither talented drunks nor drunken talents."

Mussorgsky's most popular work is Pictures at an Exhibition. It was written as a piano piece, but is best known in the orchestrated version by Maurice Ravel. It is a work with sufficient developmental potential as to provoke a number of people to provide their own orchestrations. In addition to the most famous one by Ravel, there were versions by Calilliet, Leonardi, Wood, Stokowski, and most recently an electronic version by Tomita.

The work is a suite of tonal "pictures" unified by a "promenade" theme, as though the composer were strolling from one picture to another. The pictures in question were all by Vladimir Hartmann, who died in 1873 and whose retrospective exhibition was attended by his close friend, Mussorgsky.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

  Violin I
Elizabeth Smith, Concertmaster
Kayla Michaels, Student concertmaster +^
Rachel Felver
Kristin Westover
Pablo Vasquez
Ilona Orban

Violin II
Joyce Dubach *
Hailey Schneider +
Paula Merriman
Alexandria Roskos +^
Wendy Kleintank
Pryce Whisenhunt +^
Lachlan Sharp +^
Linda Kummernuss

Julie Sadler *
Olivia Jenks +^
Margaret Sklenar
Josie Burton
Colleen Phillips
Liisa Wiljer

Robert Lynn *
Wallace Dubach
Daniel Kubischta +^
Zoe Gowens-Evans +^
Anna Wright +^
Monique Hochstetler +^

Darrel Fiene *
Katie Huddleston
Rod Sroufe

Kathy Davis *
Laura Stepanovich +^

George Donner *
Lila D. Hammer *
Mark Huntington
Cathy Huber

Bass Clariner
Mark Huntington

Erich Zummack *
Freddie Lapierre +^

Christen Adler *
Jamie Weidner
Matt Weidner
Barb Burdge

Steven Hammer *
John Adler

Jon Hartman *
Katrina Murray +^
Dakota Brown

Nathan Crain

Drew Cox

David Robbins *
Joel Alexander +^
Mason McBride +
Zarek Taylor

Pamela Haynes

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MU student
^ Denotes Keister Scholarship recipient
** Denotes assistant principal